FAOSTAT provides free access to food and agriculture data for over 245 countries abiotic stress tolerance in plants pdf territories and covers all FAO regional groupings from 1961 to the most recent year available. Endophytes were first described by the German botanist Heinrich Friedrich Link in 1809.
They were thought to be plant parasitic fungi and they were later termed as “microzymas” by the French scientist Béchamp. Most endophyte-plant relationships are still not well understood. Endophytes and plants often engage in mutualism, with endophytes primarily aiding in the health and survival of the host plant with issues such as pathogens and disease, water stress, heat stress, nutrient availability and poor soil quality, salinity, and herbivory. In exchange the endophyte receives carbon for energy from the plant host. Endophytes may benefit host plants by preventing other pathogenic or parasitic organisms from colonizing them.
Some fungal and bacterial endophytes have proven to increase plant growth and improve overall plant hardiness. Studies have shown that endophytic fungi grow in a very intimate interaction with their host plant cells. Fungal hyphae have been seen growing either flattened or wedged against plant cells. This growth pattern indicates that fungal hyphae are substantially attached to the plant hosts cell wall, but do not invade plant cells. Endophytic fungal hyphae appear to grow at the same rate as their host leaves within the intercellular spaces of the plant cells. This enhanced survivability is largely attributed to endophytic production of secondary metabolites which protect against herbivory as well as increased uptake of nutrients. Studies have also shown that during experimental circumstances endophytes contribute significantly to plant growth and fitness under light limited conditions and plants appear to have increased reliance on their endophytic symbiont under these conditions.