Your jis g4051 standard pdf browser may be malfunctioning. Your internet connection may be unreliable. Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. Arabian Peninsula, the region became unified and most of the tribes adopted Islam.
The first caliphate, the Rashidun Caliphate, was established immediately after Muhammad’s death in 632. Muslim disenfranchisement, the Abbasid Caliphate was established in 750. From the 10th century, Abbasid rule became confined to an area around Baghdad. The fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, was established after their conquest of Mamluk Egypt in 1517. In simpler terms, the Sunni favour election while the Shia favour bloodline.
Muslim identity” by young Muslims and the appeal of a caliphate as a “idealized future Muslim state” has grown ever stronger. Arabian practice at the time was for the prominent men of a kinship group, or tribe, to gather after a leader’s death and elect a leader from amongst themselves. Candidates were usually, but not necessarily, from the same lineage as the deceased leader. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual heir. Sunnis further argue that a caliph should ideally be chosen by election or community consensus.