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The glycerin, a useful byproduct, can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, or be isolated for other uses. Many other metallic soaps are also useful, including those of aluminium, sodium, and mixtures of them. Such soaps are also used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils. When used for cleaning, soap allows insoluble particles to become soluble in water, so they can then be rinsed away. Anything that is soluble will be washed away with the water.
The type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap product. Typical vegetable oils used in soap making are palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil, and laurel oil. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content and hence, results in soaps of distinct feel. The seed oils give softer but milder soaps. The term “Castile” is also sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil.