This article is semi-protected until April 10, metal metal bonding pdf. This article is about metallic materials.
Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms. The elements which are considered as metals under ordinary conditions are shown in yellow on the periodic table below. The remaining elements are shown either as nonmetals or as metalloids of intermediate character. In bcc, each atom is positioned at the center of a cube of eight others. In fcc and hcp, each atom is surrounded by twelve others, but the stacking of the layers differs. Some metals adopt different structures depending on the temperature.
Atoms of metals readily lose their outer shell electrons, resulting in a free flowing cloud of electrons within their otherwise solid arrangement. This provides the ability of metallic substances to easily transmit heat and electricity. While this flow of electrons occurs, the solid characteristic of the metal is produced by electrostatic interactions between each atom and the electron cloud. The high density of most metals is due to the tightly packed crystal lattice of the metallic structure.