A healthy neuron with myelin sheath around the long, thin axon. The disease has different effects in multiple sclerosis guidelines 2013 pdf people, and can make people’s bodies, eyesight, speech, and minds work poorly. People with MS do not normally live as long as healthy people. In healthy people, myelin sheaths help neurons work.
Electric signals in neurons move quickly through long, narrow axons like electricity in a wire. The myelin is like the insulator around the wire that keeps the signal strong by keeping it from moving out of the wire before the end. A person with MS has myelin that is too thin or completely gone. Without the protective covering, the signals between neurons do not travel well. Because of this, the mind and body cannot work like they normally do. Research about the causes of MS is still incomplete. Chlamydia pneumoniae may cause MS.