Liver spot on left forearm. They range in color from light brown to red or black and are located in stiff neck exercises pdf most often exposed to the sun, particularly the hands, face, shoulders, arms and forehead, and the scalp if bald. From the age of 40 onward the skin is less able to regenerate from sun exposure, and liver spots are very common in this age group, particularly in those who spend time in the sun.
However, despite being a benign condition, liver spots are sometimes considered unsightly and some people choose to have them removed. Differently from the melanotic nevi and the verrucous nevi on the skin, age spots change with time in color and in shape. Firstly, the development of a flat spot is a result of accumulation of aged basal cells. An aged cell will affect the functionality of the local tissue and promote the aging of its neighbor cells. By a feedback loop, more and more neighbor cells become aged and lipofuscin-containing. They aggregate and form a spot with an irregular shape.
Secondly, protruding of a flat spot is a result of the death of aged cells in the spot and release of lipofuscin bodies. Isolation of the un-digestible lipofuscin bodies in a fibrotic capsule is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the tissue. Successive encapsulation of dead cells and lipofuscin bodies results in the growth of a spot in three dimensions. The dense lipofuscin bodies in the capsule make a protruding spot soft and dark in color. Harvard University Press, 2004, p. Treatment of lentigo maligna with azelaic acid”.