Please forward this error screen to 144. This article is about the ten tiny breaths pdf free download. Figure A shows normal anatomy. Figure B shows lungs with pleurisy in the right lung and a pneumothorax of the left lung.
Occasionally the pain may be a constant dull ache. Occasionally the cause remains unknown. The underlying mechanism involves the rubbing together of the pleurae instead of smooth gliding. Treatment depends on the underlying cause.
About one million people are affected in the United States each year. The defining symptom of pleurisy is a sudden sharp, stabbing, burning or dull pain in the right or left side of the chest during breathing, especially when one inhales and exhales. The pain may stay in one place, or it may spread to the shoulder or back. Sometimes, it becomes a fairly constant dull ache.
The goals are to rule out other sources of the symptoms and to find the cause of the pleurisy so that the underlying disorder can be treated. This method detects any unusual sounds in the lungs. A person with pleurisy may have inflamed layers of the pleurae that make a rough, scratchy sound as they rub against each other during breathing. Depending on the results of the physical examination, diagnostic tests are sometimes performed. Sometimes an x-ray is taken while lying on the painful side. This may show fluid, as well as changes in fluid position, that did not appear in the vertical x-ray. It may show where fluid is located in the chest.
It also can show some tumors. Although ultrasound may detect fluid around the lungs, also known as a pleural effusion, sound waves are scattered by air. Therefore, an actual picture of the lungs cannot be obtained with ultrasonography. It also may show signs of pneumonia, a lung abscess, or a tumor. This test shows how well the lungs are taking in oxygen. The person sits upright and leans on a table. Excess fluid from the pleural space is drained into a bag.
The doctor inserts a small needle or a thin, hollow, plastic tube in the chest wall and withdraws fluid. Thoracentesis can be done in the doctor’s office or at the hospital. Ultrasound is used to guide the needle to the fluid that is trapped in small pockets around the lungs. Thoracentesis usually does not cause serious complications. Generally, a chest x-ray is done after the procedure to evaluate the lungs.
In rare cases, bleeding may occur in or around the lung. The doctor can use a chest tube to drain the blood. In some cases, surgery is needed. Sometimes air comes in through the needle or the needle makes a hole in the lung. Usually, a hole seals itself—but sometimes air builds up around the lung and makes it collapse. A chest tube removes the air and lets the lung expand again.