Unsourced the principles of clinical cytogenetics pdf may be challenged and removed. Vacutainer tubes may contain additives designed to stabilize and preserve the specimen prior to analytical testing.
Becton Dickinson, which manufactures and sells the tubes today. Drawing blood using a vacutainer. The clear plastic sheath around the top of the tube holds the needle. When the needle is screwed into the translucent plastic needle holder, the rubber needle is inside the holder, and the exposed needle will be inserted into the vein. When a Vacutainer tube is inserted into the holder, its rubber cap is punctured by the inner needle and the vacuum in the tube pulls blood through the needle and into the tube. The filled tube is then removed and another can be inserted and filled the same way.
The amount of air evacuated from the tube predetermines how much blood will fill the tube before blood stops flowing. Each tube is topped with a color-coded plastic or rubber cap. Tubes often include additives that mix with the blood when collected, and the color of each tube’s plastic cap indicates which additives it contains. Blood collection tubes expire because over time the vacuum is lost and blood will not be drawn into the tube when the needle punctures the cap. Using the wrong tube may make the blood sample unusable for the intended purpose.
Additionally, some tubes contain additives that preserve certain components of or substances within the blood, such as glucose. Tubes containing gel can be easily handled and transported after centrifugation without the blood cells and serum mixing. The meanings of the various colors are standardized across manufacturers. The needle which pierces the tubes can carry additives from one tube into the next, so the sequence is standardized so that any cross-contamination of additives will not affect laboratory results. Sodium heparin collection tubes are the classically preferred tube for peripheral blood or bone marrow for cytogenetic studies. Lithium heparin is considered suboptimal for cytogenetics. Lavender top tubes are generally used when whole blood is needed for analysis.
Can also be used for some blood bank procedures such as blood type and screen. These tubes are used for trace metal analysis. These tubes are certified to contain no lead. Blood collection tubes are among the basic medical supplies taken by disaster relief programs to affected areas. The plastic tube version, known as Vacutainer PLUS, was developed at B-D in the early 1990s by E. Harper amongst others of the Surface Science Group as US patents 5344611, 5326535, 5320812, 5257633 and 5246666.