Chronemics can be briefly and generally defined as the study of human tempo as it related to human communication. More specifically, chronemics involves the study of both subjective and objective human tempos as they influence and are interdependent with human behavior. Further, chronemics involves the study of human communication as it relates to interdependent and integrated the sage handbook of grounded theory pdf of time-experiencing. A number of classification systems exist in the literature of time.
However, such systems are not applied to human interaction directly. Time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. The use of time can affect lifestyle, daily agendas, speed of speech, movements, and how long people are willing to listen. Time can be used as an indicator of status.
For example, in most companies the boss can interrupt progress to hold an impromptu meeting in the middle of the work day, yet the average worker would have to make an appointment to see the boss. The way in which different cultures perceive time can influence communication as well. A monochronic time system means that things are done one at a time and time is segmented into precise, small units. Under this system, time is scheduled, arranged and managed. Many Americans like to think that to them, time is a precious resource not to be wasted or taken lightly.
We buy time, save time, spend time and make time. Our time can be broken down into years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds and even milliseconds. We use time to structure both our daily lives and events that we are planning for the future. We have schedules that we must follow: appointments that we must go to at a certain time, classes that start and end at certain times, work schedules that start and end at certain times, and even our favorite TV shows, that start and end at a certain time. American’s viewpoint of time in the business world, “the schedule is sacred.
Hall says that for monochronic cultures, such as the American culture, “time is tangible” and viewed as a commodity where “time is money” or “time is wasted. The result of this perspective is that monochronic cultures, place a paramount value on schedules, tasks and “getting the job done. These cultures are committed to regimented schedules and may view those who do not subscribe to the same perception of time as disrespectful, inefficient or unreliable. A polychronic time system is a system where several things can be done at once, and wider view of time is exhibited and time is perceived in large fluid sections. Examples of polychronic behaviors include: typing while answering telephones or taking notes while sitting participating in meetings.